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Other, comparatively rare disorders in which neuroendovascular procedures may have a role are listed below.


Pial arteriovenous fistula

They are rare vascular malformations in the brain consisting of a dilated pial artery connected directly to an enlarged cortical draining vein. It is characterized by an absence of a nidus.


Vein of Galen Malformation

It is a congenital vascular malformation seen in neonates and children. It is very rare and Endovascular embolisation is the mainstay of treatment.


Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT)

It is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses of the brain which drain blood from the brain back to the heart. It is usually diagnosed by a CT or MRI scan. Treatment includes anticoagulant medications and in some cases thrombolysis by injecting a medication at the site of the clot via an endovascular procedure.


Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation

It is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels on or near the spinal cord. It has the potential to permanently damage your spinal cord if not treated. Endovascular embolization is a minimally invasive to reduce the risk of haemorrhage and other complications due to spinal AVMs. It is often used with spinal AVM surgery for its treatment.


Vertebral Hemangioma

It is a vascular lesion within a vertebral body and is the most common benign vertebral neoplasm. They are benign and mostly asymptomatic.


Paraspinal Arteriovenous Fistula

It is an extremely rare congenital or acquired vascular malformations localized outside the dura and not associated with a nidus within the spinal canal. Patients with symptomatic paravertebral AV fistulae were previously treated by surgery but a high probability of recurrent lesions was reported. Nowadays, percutaneous interventional embolization using liquid preparations such as N-butyl-cyanocrylate, glue or a mixture of both is the treatment of choice.


Carotid Cavernous fistula

It is a type of arteriovenous fistula which results from abnormal communication between the Cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. Patients usually present with redness in one eye which may have developed suddenly or over a period of time. The diagnosis is done with the help of a CT scan and a cerebral angiography. Mainstay of treatment includes occlusion of the affected Cavernous sinus with coils or liquid agent via endovascular therapy performed by an interventional neuroradiologost.


Pediatric Maxillofacial Vascular Malformation

It is a type of a birthmark which is always present at birth and grows as proportionately as the child grows. It may worsen as the child grows but does not disappear on its own. Depending on the type of malformation, either laser therapy or an endovascular procedure is done for its treatment.


Pre-operative embolization of vascular tumors

Preoperative embolization is a procedure which may facilitate or improve the outcome of subsequent surgical interventions. This is especially useful for tumors of the head, neck and spine which have a large blood supply. A material is injected to block off the blood supply to the tumor, thereby helping improve the outcome of the subsequent surgical procedure.


ENT bleeds

A nose bleed termed as epistaxis is a fairly common condition. In cases of persistent and recurrent epistaxis despite conservative treatment, in a haemodynamicaly stable patient, a selective endovascular embolization of the site of bleeding can be attempted.