An AVM is a tangle of abnormal and poorly formed blood vessels in the brain connecting arteries and veins directly. AVMs can occur anywhere in the body but are most common in the brain and spine. Brain AVMs, which although rare, are of special concern because of the damage they can cause if they rupture.
The cause of AVMs is not clear, most are born with it and can occasionally develop later on in life. Many remain asymptomatic while some may experience symptoms like headache, seizures, or symptoms due to brain hemorrhage.
The AVMs are diagnosed by CT scan, MRI and the gold standard is cerebral angiography.
The main aim of treatment is to prevent hemorrhage and avoid seizures. The treatment options are conservative, microsurgical resection, Endovascular embolisation and Radiosurgery. The choice of treatment is based on multiple factors and in many of these patients multimodality approach may be used.
Endovascular Embolization is a less invasive procedure in which a catheter is introduced through a leg artery which passes through the blood vessels into your brain using X-ray imaging. An embolizing agent is then injected to block the abnormal tangle of vessels and hence obliterate the blood flow.